Basics

 

Aikido Basics The Basics (kihon) of Aikido are very important and begin with…....

 

Proper Posture

 

No building in the world can stand the test of time without a proper foundation. Before you learn anything in Aikido, it is important to first learn how to stand and move correctly in Aikido. The key is to stand and move in proper or good posture, where you maintain a solid, balanced base from which your Aikido will come. In Aikido, this is called kamae. Aikidoka can assume either left posture (hidari hanmi) or right posture (migi hanmi), depending on the situation

 

For a Proper and Solid Posture…

 

•Wide, triangular stance with hips, shoulders and chest facing forward

•Forward knee bent slightly and not locked

•Weight evenly distributed over both legs

•Shoulders and arms relaxed, arms in front of your centre, elbows close to the body relaxed and slightly bent

•The hands form a sword-edge (katana te) with the leading hand at head height and the second hand at chest height just below the forward hand

•Belt knot directly above the heal of the forward foot

 

Break Falls

 

Aikido techniques (waza) involve finishing with a throw. This means that the receiver of the technique (uke) needs to learn how to fall (ukemi) safely

 

A number of falls (ukemi) are taught…

 

•Backward break fall (ushiro ukemi)

•Sideways break fall

•Forward rolling break fall (mae ukemi)

•Backward rolling break fall

 

Training

 

In Aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training. The physical training in Aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techniques. Because a substantial portion of any Aikido curriculum consists of throws, the first thing all Aikido students should learn is how to safely fall or roll. The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs. The techniques for defence consist of throws (nage) and pins (katame). After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defence against single or multiple opponents (randori) and in certain styles, techniques with weapons

 

Fitness

 

Physical training goals pursued in conjunction with Aikido include controlled relaxation, flexibility and endurance, with less emphasis on strength training. In Aikido, pushing or extending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements. This distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the Aikido practitioner (Aikidoka)

 

Certain anaerobic fitness activities, such as weight training, emphasize contracting movements. In Aikido, specific muscles or muscle groups are not isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, and power. Aikido related training emphasizes the use of coordinated whole-body movement and balance similar to Yoga or Pilates. For example, many dojo begin each class with warm-up exercises (準備体操, junbi taisō), which may include stretching and break falls

 

Roles of Receiver (Uke) and Thrower (Nage or Tori)

 

Aikido training is based primarily on two partners practicing in pre-arranged forms (waza) rather than freestyle practice. The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke) to initiate an attack against the thrower (投げ, nage, also referred to as 取り, tori, or 仕手, shite, depending on the Aikido style), who neutralises this attack with an Aikido technique

 

Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of tori or nage, are considered essential to Aikido training. Both are studying Aikido principles of blending and adaptation. Tori or nage learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which tori or nage places them. This "receiving" of the technique is called ukemi. Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e.g., an exposed side), while tori or nage uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply reversal techniques (返し技, kaeshi waza) to regain balance and pin or throw tori or nage

 

Ukemi (受身) refers to the act of receiving a technique. Good ukemi involves a parry or break fall that is used to avoid pain or injury, such as joint dislocations or strike (atemi)

 

Initial Attacks

 

Aikido techniques are usually a defence against an attack, therefore, to practice Aikido with their partner, students must learn to deliver various types of attacks. Although attacks are not studied as thoroughly as in striking-based arts, correctly gauged "honest" attacks (a strong strike or an immobilizing grab) that do not expose a weakness such as an uncovered or unprotected face are needed to study correct and effective application of Aikido technique, blocking, however, is counter-productive to the learning process for both uke and tori and will not be tolerated in Aikido training at Asoryu Aikido Club

 

Many of the strikes (打ち, uchi) of Aikido are often said to resemble cuts from a sword or other grasped object, which may suggest origins in techniques intended for armed combat. Other techniques which appear to explicitly be punches (tsuki) are also practiced as thrusts with a knife or sword. Kicks are generally reserved for upper level variations, reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especially dangerous and that kicks (high kicks in particular) were uncommon during the types of combat prevalent in feudal Japan

 

Some basic strikes include…

 

•Front of the head strike (正面打ち, shōmen uchi) a vertical sword-hand strike (tegatana or katana te) to the head

•Side of the head strike (横面打ち, yokomen uchi) a diagonal sword-hand strike (katana te) to the side of the head or neck

•Chest thrust (胸突き, mune tsuki) a punch to the torso. Specific targets include the chest, abdomen and solar plexus. Same as "middle-level thrust" (中段突き, chūdan tsuki), and "direct thrust" (直突き, choku tsuki)

•Face thrust (顔面突き, ganmen tsuki) a punch to the face. Same as "upper level thrust" (上段突き, jōdan tsuki)

 

Beginners in particular often practice techniques from grabs, both because they are safer and because it is easier to feel the energy and lines of force of a hold than a strike. Some grabs are historically derived from being held while trying to draw a weapon; a technique could then be used to free oneself and immobilize or strike the attacker who is grabbing the defender

 

The following are examples of some basic grabs…

 

•Single hand grab (片手取り, katate dori) one hand grabs one wrist

•Both hands grab (諸手取り, morote dori) both hands grab one wrist

•Both hands grab (両手取り, ryōte dori) both hands grab both wrists. Same as "double single handed grab" (両片手取り, ryōkatate dori)

•Shoulder grab (肩取り, kata dori) a shoulder grab. "Both shoulders grab" is (両肩取り, ryōkata dori)

•Chest grab (胸取り, mune dori) grabbing the (clothing of the) chest. Same as "collar grab" (襟取り, eri dori)

 

Basic Techniques in Aikido

 

The following are a sample of the basic or widely practiced throws and pins in Aikido. The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles, so what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation, Tokyo, Japan. Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order. Also, all Aikido techniques are trained in both the forward (omote) and reverse (ura) forms and from all forms of attack and from all stances, standing (tachi), kneeling (suwari) and one standing one kneeling (hanmi han dachi)

 

To view Doshu Moriteru Ueshiba’s Basis Aikido Techniques (training videos) Click Here

 

1.First technique (一教, ikkyō) a control using one hand on or below the elbow and one hand near the wrist which having first crushed uke's centre, leverages uke to the ground. This grip also applies pressure into the ulnar nerve at the wrist

 

2.Second technique (二教, nikyō) a pronating wristlock that torques the arm and applies painful nerve pressure (there is an adductive wristlock or Z-lock in backward or ura version)

3.Third technique (三教, sankyō) a rotational wristlock that directs upward spiralling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder

 

4.Fourth technique (四教, yonkyō) a shoulder control similar to ikkyō, but with both hands gripping the forearm. The knuckles (from the palm side) are applied to the recipient's radial nerve against the periosteum of the forearm bone

 

5.Fifth technique (五教, gokyō) visually similar to ikkyō, but with an inverted grip of the wrist, medial rotation of the arm and shoulder, and downward pressure on the elbow. Common in knife and other weapon take-aways

 

6.Four direction throw (四方投げ, shihōnage) while protecting oneself from atack by uke's second or unseen hand (potentially gripping a knife), the attacking hand and arm of uke are folded back past the shoulder, locking the shoulder joint

 

7.Forearm return (小手返し, kotegaeshi) a supinating wristlock throw that stretches the extensor digitorum of uke

 

8.Breath throw (呼吸投げ, kokyūnage) a loosely used term for various types of mechanically unrelated techniques, although they generally do not use joint locks like other techniques

 

9.Entering throw (入身投げ, iriminage) throws in which tori or nage moves through the space occupied by uke. The classic form superficially resembles a "clothesline" technique

 

10.Heaven and earth throw (天地投げ, tenchinage) beginning with ryōte dori; moving forward in proper posture and with the elbows held close to the torso, tori or nage sweeps one hand low ("earth") and the other high ("heaven") opening up uke's upper & lower arms, which unbalances uke so that he or she easily topples over

 

11.Hip throw (腰投げ, koshinage) in Aikido's version of the hip throw, tori or nage drops his or her hips lower than those of uke, then flips uke over the resultant fulcrum

 

12.Figure ten throw (十字投げ, jūjinage) or figure-ten entanglement (十字絡み, jūjigarami) a throw that locks the arms against each other (The Japanese kanji for "10" is a cross-shape; 十)

 

13.Rotary throw (回転投げ, kaitennage) tori or nage sweeps uke's arm back until it locks at the shoulder joint, tori then uses either a forward or downward rotational pressure from the whole body, particularly the lower body i.e. the hips (koshi) and forward leg rather than using power from the shoulder and arms to effect the throw

 

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Special Notices

 

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Huddersfield HD2 2TP